June 28, 2022
We introduce Codex, a GPT language model ﬁne-tuned on publicly available code from GitHub, and study its Python code-writing capabilities. A distinct production version of Codex powers GitHub Copilot. On HumanEval, a new evaluation set we release to measure functional correctness for synthesizing programs from docstrings, our model solves 28.8% of the problems, while GPT-3 solves 0% and GPT-J solves 11.4%. Fur-thermore, we ﬁnd that repeated sampling from the model is a surprisingly effective strategy for producing working solutions to difﬁcult prompts. Using this method, we solve 70.2% of our problems with 100 samples per problem. Careful investigation of our model reveals its limitations, including difﬁculty with docstrings describing long chains of operations and with binding operations to variables. Finally, we discuss the potential broader impacts of deploying powerful code generation technologies, covering safety, security, and economics.
2021: Mark Chen, Jerry Tworek, Heewoo Jun, Qiming Yuan, Henrique Ponde, Jared Kaplan, Harrison Edwards, Yura Burda, Nicholas Joseph, Greg Brockman, Alex Ray, Raul Puri, Gretchen Krueger, Michael Petrov, Heidy Khlaaf, Girish Sastry, Pamela Mishkin, Brooke Chan, Scott Gray, Nick Ryder, Mikhail Pavlov, Alethea Power, Lukasz Kaiser, Mohammad Bavarian, Clemens Winter, Philippe Tillet, F. Such, D. Cummings, Matthias Plappert, Fotios Chantzis, Elizabeth Barnes, Ariel Herbert-Voss, William H. Guss, Alex Nichol, I. Babuschkin, S. Balaji, Shantanu Jain, A. Carr, J. Leike, Joshua Achiam, Vedant Misra, Evan Morikawa, Alec Radford, M. Knight, Miles Brundage, Mira Murati, Katie Mayer, P. Welinder, Bob McGrew, Dario Amodei, Sam McCandlish, Ilya Sutskever, Wojciech Zaremba